2014-06-26 10:36 供稿单位: 新航道
如今，纳什已经基本恢复正常，并重新开始科学研究。他现在是普林斯顿大学数学教授，但已经不再任教。学校经济学系经常会举办有关博弈论的论坛，纳什有时候会参加，但是他几乎从不发言，每次都是静静地来，静静地走。 John Nash(1928-)
When the young Nash had applied to graduate school at Princeton in 1948, his old Carnegie Tech professor, R.J. Duffin, wrote only one line on his letter of recommendation: "This man is a genius". It was at Princeton that Nash encountered the theory of games, then recently launched by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. However, they had only managed to solve non-cooperative games in the case of "pure rivalries" (i.e. zero-sum). The young Nash turned to rivalries with mutual gain. His trick was the use of best-response functions and a recent theorem that had just emerged - Kakutani's fixed point-theorem. His main result, the "Nash Equilibrium", was published in 1950 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. He followed this up with a paper which introduced yet another solution concept - this time for two-person cooperative games - the "Nash Bargaining Solution" (NBS) in 1950. A 1951 paper attached his name to yet another side of economics - this time, the "Nash Programme", reflecting his methodological call for the reduction of all cooperative games into a non-cooperative framework.
His contributions to mathematics were no less remarkable. As an undergraduate, he had inadvertently (and independently) proved Brouwer's fixed point theorem. Later on, he went on to break one of Riemann's most perplexing mathematical conundrums. From then on, Nash provided breakthrough after breakthrough in mathematics. In 1958, on the threshold of his career, Nash got struck by paranoid schizophrenia. He lost his job at M.I.T. in 1959 (he had been tenured there in 1958 - at the age of 29) and was virtually incapicated by the disease for the next two decades or so. He roamed about Europe and America, finally, returning to Princeton where he became a sad, ghostly character on the campus - "the Phantom of Fine Hall" as Rebecca Goldstein described him in her novel, Mind-Body Problem. The disease began to evaporate in the early 1970s and Nash began to gradually to return to his work in mathematics. However, Nash himself associated his madness with his living on an "ultralogical" plane, "breathing air too rare" for most mortals, and if being "cured" meant he could no longer do any original work at that level, then, Nash argued, a remission might not be worthwhile in the end. As John Dryden once put it:
Great wits are sure to madness near allied, And thin partitions do their bounds divide.
Key words: economist illness Nobel price winner
One need look no further than the famous Einstein-Bohr Debate on determinacy - indeterminacy of quantum theories. On one hand, Einstein believed that quantum physics would eventually be replaced by a more determinate theory. Bohr, on the other hand, accepted the finality of the probability-based quantum theory. Their debate brought about chaos theory, which finally solved the debate by proposing wave-particle duality. When viewed from this perspective, the Einstein-Bohr debate evaporates. Depending on which part of the spiral we look, Bohr or Einstein will appear correct.
成功和失败Winners & Losers
The word “winner” and “loser” have many meanings. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who makes someone else lose. To us, a winner is one who responds authentically by being credible, trustworthy, responsive, and genuine, both as an individual and as a member of a society.
Winners do not dedicate their lives to a concept of what they imagine they should be; rather, they are themselves and as such do not use their energy putting on a performance, maintaining pretence and manipulating others. They are aware that there is a difference between being loving and acting loving, between being stupid and acting stupid, between being knowledgeable and acting
(his ancestors took part in Works: The Scarlet LetterHester Prynne Arthur Dimmesdale Roger Chillingworth Pearl knowledgeable. Winners do not need to hide behind a mask.demolished, bound or awed by them.
Winners do not play “helpless”, nor do they play the blaming game. Instead, they assume responsibility for their own lives.
If you want to learn the secrets of success, it seems perfectly reasonable to study successful people and organizations, but studying successes without also looking at failures tends to create a misleading — if not entirely wrong — picture of what it takes to succeed. But the performance of any given firm is influenced by many random events beyond the control of managers.
Every one has a different personality. I have an optimistic personality and I always do everything happily. But not every one finds this easy. When I meet people like this, I usually advise them to see the school councilor. There are reasons why everyone's personality is so different. If your parents love you and care about you, then your personality will be healthy and happy. If your parents don't, then your personality could sad and withdrawn. A person's personality determines his or her future. So if you come across someone who is often worried, you can try and help them or tell them to seek help from a councilor.
Consider also less egregious examples, such as President Nixon's withholding of information about his active role in the Watergate cover-up. His behavior demonstrated a concern for self- interest above the broader interests of the democratic system that granted his political authority in the first place.
The sexual scandal of President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky is not only a shame of them, but also in defiance of the societal moral standards based on love, honor, honesty, and duty.
Clinton's reckless and immoral behavior and its public dissemination had reinforced the publication of sexual acts over the internet, radio, and television, and would inextricably aggravate the wrongdoings of the adolescence.
白色谎言 Author: Nathaniel Hawthorne 19century Works: The Scarlet Letter Heroine: Hester Prynne In this novel, Hester Prynne fornicate with the young vicar Arthur Dimmesdale. They had a daughter whose name is Pearl during the time that the husband of Hester Prynne disappeared. Time flies, Pearl became to realize that she was different from other common kids because she did
not have a father. Then, Pearl came back to ask her mother the reason. Hester Prynne decided to tell a white lie. She told her daughter," You are the gift which The God give me." Not only protected the pride of Pearl, but also kept secret that the fornicator is Author Dimmesdale. From this short story, we found that not all lies are evil. The white lies sometimes not hurt the surroundings or the people we cherish.
Background Author: Nahthaniel Hawthorne 父亲是位有名的船长，在航海中死亡(his father is a famous captain but died during the voyage) 他的祖先参与对政敌的迫害，因此他宣扬道德(his ancestors took part in Works: The Scarlet LetterHester Prynne Arthur Dimmesdale Roger Chillingworth Pearl在胸上佩戴
A字Adult able angle ArthurDimmesdale 内心备受煎熬，身体慢慢的胯下，承认了自己的错误，人进入了天堂 Roger Chillingworth 人只要诚实，哪怕到生命的一刻也会得到原谅。如果不诚实，即便诚实也会死去。
Key words: philosophy poor childhood ancient China
Confucius(circa 551-479 BC)
One of the most famous people in ancient China was a wise philosopher named Confucius. He sometimes went by the names Kong Zi though he was born - Kong Qiu - styled Zhong Ni. He was born in the village of Zou in the country of Lu.
This Chinese man was a well-known leader in philosophy and he also made many wise phrases and theories about the law, life, and the government. Confucius is famous for his philosophy because he made many wise sayings in ancient China that helped many people learn about nature, the world, and the human behavior. He also helped the government and the emperor by teaching them lessons on how the emperor should rule his kingdom successfully.
Confucius was born in a poor family in the year 551 B.C., and he was born in the state of Lu. His original name was K'ung Ch'iu. His father, commander of a district in Lu, died three years after Confucius was born, leaving the family in poverty; but Confucius nevertheless received a fine education. He was married at the age of 19 and had one son and two daughters.
He worked as a keeper of a market. Then he was a farm worker who took care of parks and farm animals. When he was 20, he worked for the governor of his district
A Blind Woman's Vision
She fought for women’s rights, crusaded for the causes of workers, promoted equality for minorities, and championed the underprivileged and the oppressed. She also earned several prestigious awards from countries as diverse as Japan, Brazil, and Lebanon. An impressive list of achievements for any human, all this was accomplished by a woman who was blind and deaf.
Helen Keller was born a healthy child in 1880 in Alabama. Stricken by illness at the tender age of nineteen months, Helen lost her ability to see, hear, and speak. Growing up unable to comprehend the world around her, Helen became wild and unruly, until her parents found help.
1880年，They contacted Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, the famous inventor and teacher of the deaf, who introduced them to an institute for the blind in Boston, Massachusetts. A student there, Annie Sullivan, was asked to help. Annie would later become known as the “Miracle Worker.”
Annie Sullivan taught Helen how to connect objects with letters by spelling words into Helen’s hands. Helen’s breakthrough came when Annie held her hand under a water pump while spelling “water” into her other hand repeatedly. Helen suddenly understood, and from then on progressed by leaps and bounds.
Having mastered both the manual and Braille alphabets, Helen became proficient in reading and writing, and began learning how to speak in 1890. Helen entered Radcliffe College and, assisted by Annie Sullivan, graduated cum laude in 1904. She was the first blind-deaf person ever to graduate from college.
Helen Keller spent the rest of her life as a writer, lecturer, and advocate for the deaf and blind and other disadvantaged groups. She traveled to numerous countries on behalf of the disabled, and founded the Helen Keller Endowment Fund for the American Foundation for the Blind in 1930. She died on June 1, 1968, an outstanding example of the unconquerable human spirit.
1. Every man is the master of his own fortune.——Richard Steele
2. All that you do,do with your might;things done by halves are never done right.——R.H.Stoddard,American poet
3. As selfishness and complaint cloud the mind,so love with its joy clears and sharpens the vision. ——Helen Keller
As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live.——Johann Wolfgang vo Gogthe
Our destiny offers not only the cup of despair , but the chalice of opportunity.——Richard Nixon, American President
命运给予我们的不是失望之酒，而是机会之杯。——美国总统 尼克松 . R.
Everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the freedom to choose his attitude in any given set of circumstances.——Leonhard Frand, German novelist
wept when I was born, and every day shows why.——Jack London, American novelist