2014-05-12 15:19 供稿单位: 新航道
Chapter 1 American History ( I ) (1600-1900)
1. Discovery of the New World
*The “first Americans”: Indians
*Christopher Columbus: An Italian navigator supported by Spanish Queen led his men to sail across the vast ocean in 1492 and reached some small islands in the now West Indies. He thought he had reached Aisa and didn’t know he had discovered a New Continent. (哥伦布是个粗心大意的家伙[意大利人]，本来要去西藏[西班牙赞助]，却在西印度群岛上，看到一座寺庙就饿了，不想走了。[哥伦布的老家和赞助商要记清])
*Amerigo Vespucci: The navigator who proved that the land was no India, but a new continent. Therefore, the land was named America after him.
2. The Colonial Period
*The first English colony at Jamestown, Virginia (1607)[6形状是大象的鼻子，这么记：一头大象用鼻子(16)吹泡泡(0)，泡泡飘得很高，挂满了整面旗帜(7)，在Jamestown的上空迎风飘扬，猎猎作响。
*The original 13 colonies: along the east coast of North America: Virginia, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Georgia. (13: 雨伞。谐音想象：一把大花伞下面，你系着一条花围裙[Virginia=维吉尼亚]在和面[Maine]，面里放满了崭新的火腿[New Ham+pshire]，然后你吃着火腿面骑着马[马萨诸塞]，牵[Connecticu]着牛[纽约]上路[Road=Rhode]了，路上看到隆重的婚礼[Maryland]，北方和南方的孪生姐妹坐在彩车[car]里[North Carolina and South Carolina]，新郎[New Jersey]和男傧相[宾州]站在桥[乔治亚州]上迎接新娘。)
*Causes for the colonization of the New World (理解记忆)
Opportunity was the magic word that drew people to America. It drew English nobles and skilled workmen to America and most of all it drew the poor and the homeless from the farmlands and villages of Europe. It offered people a chance to live a better life than they could hope for in the Old World.
*The Pilgrims: To escape religious persecution, they left England and lived in Leyden, Holland, but they feared their children might become Dutchmen, so in 1620, 201 them sailed to the New World in a ship called Mayflower. They arrived at Plymouth and built the Plymouth colony. (他们刚到的那个冬天，有一半人都死了，后来印第安人教他们种玉米，丰收后，举行了个“感恩节”，Thanksgiving celebration, 其实他们应该感谢印第安人。)
[The Pilgrims were artisans and peasants.]
*The Puritans and the Massachusetts Bay
The puritans were wealthy and well-educated gentlemen. They wanted to purify the Church of England. The Puritans leaders saw the New World as a refuge provided by God for those He meant to save. So in March 1630, the great Puritan migration began. From 1630 to 1643, some 200 ships transported over 20,000 Englishmen to Massachusetts Bay colony. (下午四点半[PM4: 30=Puritans+Massachusetts; 4: 30=16:30=1630]开始，13分钟之内[1630+13=1643]，200条船运了2万个英国佬到马萨诸塞!)
*Features of the new colonies (可以出选择题，结合后来的美国文化，容易理解)
The features were representative form of government, rule of law, respect of individual rights, religious tolerance and a strong spirit of individual enterprise.
3. The War of Independence
*Conflicts between the British government and the American people
*The “Boston Tea Party”
In 1773, when ships of tea reached Boston, several dozen Boston residents dressed as Indians boarded the ships at night and threw $75,000 worth of tea into the harbor. This came to be known as the “Boston Tea Party”.
*The First Continental Congress
In September 1774, the First Congress was held in Philadelphia encouraging Amercians to refuse to buy British goods. Colonial militia units were organized.
*Lexington and Concord
The shot of Lexington (1775) marked the start of the War of Independence.
*The Second Continental Congress
Three weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia. The delegates agreed to support the war. The Congress founded a Continental Army and Navy and appointed a committee to draft a formal declaration.
*George Washington: The Congress founded a Continental Army and Navy under the command of George Washington, a Virginian militia (民兵) commander.
*Thomas Jefferson: Tomas Jefferson of Virginia drafted the Declaration of Independence. On July 4, 1776, the Congress adopted the declaration. (Independence Day! 记忆1776：美国人个个是牛仔，喜欢一起骑牛庆祝独立。)
*The Declaration of Independence and the political theory behind the American Revolution
The Declaration is a clear explanation of the political theory behind the revolution and this theory came from the British philosopher John Locke. (独立宣言的理论来自英国哲学家约翰。洛克) [独立的意思约[约翰]等于一把锁[Locke]，把门锁上，就算是独立了。]
(In September 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Britain recognized the independence of the United States.)
[1783, 巴黎条约签定，英国承认美国独立。美国正式独立了，人们高兴得一起爬山(1783)庆祝，拍着巴(巴黎条约)掌说give me five!]
*The American War of Independence and its significance (意义： 理解记忆)
The American War of Independence shows that, in a just war, a weak nation can defeat a strong one. It was a historic event: by smashing the fetters[束缚] of colonial rule, the American people gained independence, which gave capitalism a chance for freer development. It had great international influence. For instance, the colonies in Spanish America rose up one after another to overthrow Spanish colonial rule.